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Selasa, 23 Desember 2008

The History of The Windows (Part. 1)

Early version of Windows
Windows 1.0
The first version of Microsoft Windows, called Windows 1.0, released on 20 November 1985. This version has many shortcomings in some functionality, so that less popular in the market. In the initial Windows version 1.0 would called Interface Manager, but Rowland Hanson, head of marketing at Microsoft Corporation, the hight convince Microsoft that the name "Windows" will be more "decoy" to consumers. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system, but only expand the ability of MS-DOS with graphical interface enhancements. In addition, Windows 1.0 also has problems and weaknesses that are owned by the same MS-DOS.
Furthermore, Apple demanded that Microsoft limit the ability of Microsoft to make. For example, windows in Windows 1.0 can only be displayed on the screen in "tile" only, so the windows can not overwrite each other of each other. In addition, there is no such place that is used to store deleted files before (recycle bin), as Apple said that they have rights to the paradigm. Microsoft then remove the limitation of the Windows license agreement signed with Apple.

Windows 2.x
Windows version 2 also appear later on December 9, 1987, and became slightly more popular than the predecessor. Most populeritasnya obtained because of its proximity to the graphical applications made in Microsoft, Microsoft Excel for Windows and Microsoft Word for Windows. Windows applications can be run from MS-DOS, and then to enter the Windows operating, and will be out by themselves when the application is closed.
Microsoft Windows eventually obtain significant improvement when Aldus Pagemaker appear in the version for Windows, which previously could only run on the Macintosh. Some historians computer experts noted this occurrence as an application behavior that made a significant addition to Microsoft's early success as Microsoft Windows.
Windows version 2.0x using real-mode memory model, which can only access memory up to 1 megabita only. In such a configuration, Windows can run a multitasking other applications, such DESQview, who is running in Protected mode offered by the Intel 80286.

Windows 2.1x
Furthermore, the two released a new version, namely Windows/286 2.1 and Windows/386 2.1. Like previous versions of Windows, using the model Windows/286 real memory mode, but it is the first version that supports the High Memory Area (HMA). Windows/386 even have a 2.1 kernel to run in emulation mode Protected with Expanded Memory Specification (EMS) standard Lotus-Intel-Microsoft (LIM), the specification of the Extended Memory Specification (XMS), which then eventually change the topology of computing in the IBM PC. All Windows applications and DOS based currently running in real mode, which is running above the kernel mode Protected mode using the Virtual 8086, which is a new feature, which is owned by the Intel 80386.
Version 2:03 and then get the 3.0 version of Apple claims that version 2.1 because this mode has the look of the windows in Cascade (cumulative), in addition to some features of the Apple Macintosh operating system that "Fellowship" by Windows, the main problem is the display / look and feel. Judge William Schwarzer eventually cancel all 189 claims, with the exception of 9 claims filed by Apple against Microsoft on 5 January 1989.

Windows 3.0
Microsoft Windows eventually achieve success at a very significant step on the 3.0 version released in 1990. In addition to increasing the ability of Windows applications, Windows 3.0 also allows users to run several MS-DOS applications simultaneously (multitasking), as in this version has been introduced virtual memory. This version also makes the IBM PC and kompatibelnya serious challenger to the Apple Macintosh. This is because of the increased processing performance charts at that time (with the graphics card Video Graphics Array (VGA)), and also the mode Protected / Enhanced 386 mode that allows Windows applications to use more memory in a way that is more easily compared with what offered by the MS-DOS.
Windows 3.0 can run in three modes, namely, real mode, the standard mode, and mode of Enhanced 386, and processor-compatible with the Intel processor family from Intel 8086/8088, 80,286, to 80,386. Windows 3.0 will try to detect the mode which will be used, although users can be forced to work in Windows mode only by using certain switch-switch when a certain run
• win / r: force Windows to run in real mode
• win / s: forcing Windows to run in standard mode
• win / 3: to force Windows to run in the 386 Enhanced mode.
Version 3.0 is also the first version of Windows is running in Protected mode, although the kernel 386 enhanced mode is the improved version of the kernel from the kernel mode Protected in Windows/386.
Because of the backward compatibility features, Windows 3.0 applications should be compiled using 16-bit environment, so it was not the ability to use the Intel 80386 microprocessor, which is Unsurprisingly, the 32-bit processor.
Windows 3.0 version also present in the "multimedia", which is called Windows 3.0 with Multimedia Extensions 1.0, released several months later. This version dibundel with the "multimedia upgrade kits," which consist of a CD-ROM drive and a sound card, such as Creative Labs Sound Blaster Pro. This version is pioneer all the multimedia features found in versions of Windows after, such as Windows 3.1 and Windows for Workgroups, and become part of Microsoft's Multimedia PC specifications.
Features mentioned above and support the application software market is growing to make Windows 3.0 is very successful in the market. Recorded in the two years prior to the release version of Windows 3.1, Windows 3.0 sold 10 million copies. Finally, Windows 3.0 is the main source of income of Microsoft, and Microsoft do make some revisions to the plan initially.

While the switch to OS / 2
During the mid to late 1980s, Microsoft and IBM work together in developing a successor DOS operating system, known as the IBM OS / 2. OS / 2 can use all the capabilities offered by the Intel 80286 microprocessor and able to access up to 16 Megabytes memory. OS / 2 1.0 released in 1987, which features swapping and multitasking, in addition of course to allow MS-DOS applications to run on it.
OS / 2 version 1.0 is just an operating system that is based text mode / command line only. OS / 2 version 1.1 is released in 1988 offers a graphical interface, called the Presentation Manager (PM). Presentation Manager is using the same system of coordinates with the coordinates Cartesius, with different Windows operating system and several other GUI system. Use of the system causes the point coordinates x, y 0.0 on OS / 2 is placed on the bottom left corner of the screen, while on Windows, peletakannya in the top left corner. OS / 2 version 1.2, released in 1989, introduces a new file system, called the High Performance File System (HPFS), which is intended to replace the file system File Allocation Table (FAT).
In the early 1990s, the relationship between Microsoft and IBM also intensify due to the emergence of a conflict. This is because they mutually cooperate in developing a personal computer operating system each (with the IBM OS / 2 and Microsoft with its Windows), both have access to the code of each operating system. Microsoft requires further development of the Windows operating system buatannya, while IBM has a desire that all future work should be made based on the operating system OS / 2. In a trial to end this conflict, IBM and Microsoft eventually will agree that IBM developed the IBM OS / 2 version 2.0, to replace the OS / 2 version 1.3 and Windows 3.0, while Microsoft must develop a new operating system, OS / 2 version 3.0, which will then replace the OS / 2 version 2.0.
Approval is not prolonged, so that the relationship with IBM and Microsoft also stopped. IBM eventually continue the development of OS / 2, while changing the name of the Microsoft operating system OS / 2 version 3.0 (which has not been released) to Windows NT. Both still have the right to use the technology, OS / 2 and Windows that have been formed to severance agreement; but, Windows NT is actually written as a new operating system, and most of the code free from the code IBM OS / 2.
Once released version 1.3 to allow for some problems in the OS / 2 version 1.x, IBM finally released OS / 2 version 2.0 in 1992. Version 2.0 offers significantly increased, ie, an object-oriented GUI, called the Workplace Shell (WPS), which includes in a desktop and is considered by many people is the best feature in the OS / 2. Microsoft is finally "cheat" some elements of the Workplace Shell on the Windows 95 operating system, which released three years later. Version 2.0 also offers the API that supports full 32-bit instructions owned Intel 80386, so that multitasking features offer a good memory and is able to address up to 4 gigabytes. Nevertheless, many things in the internal system is still using 16-bit code, which require that the device driver must also be written using 16-bit code also, of course, in addition to several other internal matters. This is one reason why OS / 2 lack of hardware drivers. Version 2.0 also able to run DOS applications and Windows 3.0, because IBM is also still have the right to use DOS and Windows code after the "divorce" the relationship between them.
At that time, it is not clear who the winner in the race to be called the "Desktop Wars", but eventually the OS / 2 is not able to get enough market share that although IBM eventually released some versions of OS / 2 is far more intense after This version 2.0.

Windows 3.1 down to the home market and Windows NT down to the corporate market
As a response to the release of the IBM OS / 2 version 2.0 to the market, Microsoft is developing Windows 3.1, which offers some minor improvements to the Windows 3.0 (such as the ability to display the Fonts TrueType fonts, developed jointly with Apple), and there are also in in many improvements to the bug and support for multimedia. Version 3.1 also eliminate support for real-mode, so the only run in Protected mode, which are owned by the Intel 80286 microprocessor or higher. Microsoft also released the final 3:11 of Windows, which is a version of Windows 3.1 that includes all the improvements and patches released after Windows 3.1 was launched in 1992.

Windows for Workgroups
Approximately at the same time, Microsoft released Microsoft Windows for Workgroups, which is available both as an extra for Windows 3.1 and a version that covered the basic Windows environment and additional network capability in a package. Windows for Workgroups includes drivers and computer network protocol stack better, and also supports a network of peer-to-peer. One of the optional download for Windows for Workgroups is a stack TCP / IP protocols with the code name "Wolverine", which allows access to the Internet through the corporate network. Windows for Workgroups released in two versions, Windows for Workgroups 3.1 and Windows for Workgroups 3.11. Unlike versions of Windows, the Windows for Workgroups only runs at 3:11 in the 386 Enhanced, and require at least machinery processor with the Intel 80386SX.
All versions are continuously improving sales rate version of Windows 3.x. Although Windows 3.1x still has many shortcomings, which have been previously corrected by the OS / 2, such as long file names (exceed 11 characters, in the format 8.3), the desktop, or the protection of the system behavior, unwanted applications, Microsoft quickly take over GUI market in market share to IBM's desktop PC and kompatibelnya. Windows API is a de-facto standard software for consumers.

Windows NT
During that time, Microsoft continues to continue the development of the new operating system, called Windows NT. The main architect of Windows NT is Dave Cutler, who is one of the leading architects of the operating system on the VMS company Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), which later bought by Compaq, which is now part of Hewlett-Packard. Microsoft Cutler recruited in 1988 to create a version of OS / 2, which are portable, but eventually Cutler even create a new operating system.
Before moving to Microsoft, Cutler are actually creating a system of the VMS operating in the DEC, which is called by Mica. And when petinggi DEC thwart the project, he was out of the DEC, and brought many workers to experts with Microsoft. DEC have confidence that Cutler Mica to bring the code used by Microsoft and menuntutnya. Finally, Microsoft also lost and eventually directed to pay 150 million dollars and the United States have agreed to support the new CPU chip buaan DEC, DEC Alpha, the mare is registered as a fastest chip, that can run on Windows NT.
Windows NT 3.1 (Microsoft's marketing of Windows NT want to be seen as a continuation of Windows 3.1) finally appear first in beta form for the developers of the software in July 1992 in The Professional Developers Conference (PDC), which was held in San Francisco, California , The United States. Microsoft also announced his desire to develop an operating system successor to Windows NT but also replacement of Windows 3.1 in the conference (given the code name Chicago), which will then integrate them into a compact operating system. Operating system is given the name of Cairo.
It appeared that Cairo is a project that is more complex than what had been anticipated by Microsoft, and the results of NT and Chicago did not "unite" to Windows XP was launched. In addition, sections of Cairo not appear in the Microsoft Windows operating system until now. For example is WinFS subsystem, which is the implementation of the Object File System in Cairo, it was done by Microsoft in some time, but in the end Microsoft announced that they stop the development of WinFS and will combine the technology developed for WinFS in the Microsoft products and technologies that the other, is particularly Microsoft SQL Server.
Support for device drivers for Windows NT is also much less so as to develop drivers for Windows NT is considered complicated by some developers, on the Windows NT also has a superiority in the model of the device abstraction severity. This problem has been allowed to all versions of Windows NT to Windows NT 5.0 (Windows 2000) to exit the market. The programmer also complained that the drivers develop devices for Windows NT is something that complex, and hardware developers also do not want to take the risk to develop the device driver for an operating system that has limited market share. In addition, although Windows NT offers good performance and capable mengekspolitasi system resources more efficiently, in some systems with limited hardware, Windows NT system, which is considered as extravagant resources. This resulted in the emergence of public opinion that Windows NT is suitable only for machines that big and also far more expensive (such as DEC Alpha workstations with Intel Pentium or the mare is still new). Windows NT also can not work for the user's personal needs because resources are high. In addition, the GUI is the use of a copy of the GUI of Windows 3.1, which is still far less if compared with the Workplace Shell owned the OS / 2, Windows NT, so why is the replacement for Windows 3.1 is not reasonable.
However, tersebutlah features that make Windows NT is the perfect choice for the server market of the local network (LAN), which in 1993 is booming large-scale, in line with the commodity network in the office have increased dramatically. Features in the Windows NT network offers several connectivity options and a broad network of course, also the NTFS file system efficient. Windows NT is 3:51 primadona Microsoft when the market falls into this, then take over most of the market share previously owned by Novell Netware next few years.
One of the biggest improvement from Windows NT is the Application Programming Interface (API) 32-bit new, created to replace the Windows 16-bit API, which has long. 32-bit API is called the Win32 API, and from there the API call Microsoft 16-bit long as Win16. Win32 API has three main implementation: one for Windows NT (which is the Win32 API with support for Active Ansi or Unicode), one for Win32s (which is part of Win32 that can be used on Windows 3.1 system), and also one for Chicago (which only supports Ansi). This leads to high compatibility between Chicago and Windows NT, although in principle the two systems are very much different when viewed from the basic architecture.
Windows NT is the first Windows operating system made by using a hybrid kernel, after the previous versions only use the monolithic kernel only.
After 3:11 of Windows, Microsoft began to start developing a version of Windows that is oriented to users who are given the code name Chicago. Chicago mmeiliki designed to support the multitasking in a pre-emptive 32-bit as well as in the OS / 2 and Windows NT, although the 16-bit kernel is still in it for the backward compatibility reasons. Win32 API first introduced in Windows NT is adopted as a standard interface-based programming that the new 32-bit compatibility with Win16 also be maintained by using a technique called the "thunking." GUI, which is also owned by the new operating system, although Microsoft did not initially merencanakannya as part of the operating system when released. Indeed, some elements of the user interface, which is owned by Cairo borrowed and added to the operating system tersbut as other aspects of the version (especially the features Plug and Play).
Microsoft does not replace all the Windows code into 32-bit; many parts still in the form of 16-bit (although not using real mode directly), for compatibility reasons to back, performance, time and development. This and the fact that many weaknesses in the design versions of Windows, the operating system to create a new subject to this efficiency and stability.
Finally, the marketing of Microsoft Windows 95 using the name as the name of the product for Chicago, while released on 24 August 1995. Microsoft has two advantages from this launch: 1) is impossible for consumers to run Windows 95 on the DOS operating system that Microsoft is not made much cheaper; 2) although the impression impressions-DOS not been revoked from the operating system is, in fact, the version of the Marks a version for DOS loaded as part of the booting process, Windows 95 running by itself in the mode of Enhanced 386, using virtual memory and memory model and 32-bit flat. Features that make the Win32 applications to address the virtual RAM as the maximum 2 gigabytes (with 2 gigabytes rest is reserved for the operating system), and in theory prevent the application to the memory space that is owned by the other Win32 applications without the approval of the operating system. In this case, the functionality of Windows 95 approaching what is owned by Windows NT, although it does not support Windows 95/98/Me exceed 512 megabytes of memory without editing configuration system that caused.
Behind the success of Microsoft, IBM continue market OS / 2, with the produce of OS / 2 version 3.0 and OS / 2 Warp (version 4.0). IBM responding to complaints lodged by consumers about the needs of computer hardware that is required by the high-OS / 2 version 2.0, OS / 2 version 3.0 also made far more to do with the gent in the optimization of the size and speed. Released before Windows 95, OS / 2 Warp 3.0 was even dibundel in several major hardware provider in Germany. However, with the release of Windows 95, OS / 2 again lost market share again, taken over by the Windows 95.
May not be possible to find out what the reason why OS / 2 failed to gain market share in the large. Although OS / 2 can continue to run Windows 3.1 applications, there is no actual shortage that again, except on a small part of the Windows API called Win32s. Unlike Windows 3.1, IBM does not have access to the source code of Windows 95 and do not want to use time and resources available to perform emulation of the Win32 API. IBM also introduced the OS / 2 in case the United States versus Microsoft, with the blame on the marketing tactics of Microsoft, but many people may agree that the problem in the marketing of IBM, and it is less support from the developers of software that meyebabkan failure, the failure of the OS / 2.
Before using a new version of Windows, Microsoft released Windows 95 in five different versions, namely, as follows:
• Windows 95 - the actual release of Windows 95
• A Windows 95 - Windows 95 updates include the Original Service Release 1 (OSR1), which entered directly to the installation.
• Windows 95 B - includes several other major updates, such as FAT32 file system, and Internet Explorer 3.0. This version is also known as the Windows 95 OSR2, or many people in Indonesia call as Windows 97.
• Windows 95 USB B - or Windows 95 OSR2.1 is a version of Windows 95 that offers support for hardware-based bus, Universal Serial Bus / USB.
• Windows 95 C - or Windows 95 OSR2.5 include all the above features, plus Internet Explorer 4.0. This version is the version that most of the last series released Windows 95.
Windows 95 OSR2, OSR2.1 and OSR2.5 not released to the public, but only to OEM that would use the operating system to the computer buatannya. Some companies even sell OEM hard disk with the new operating system Windows 95 OSR2 in it.
In addition to the features contained in the Windows 95, Microsoft also introduced the Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95 that includes some additional features that are not owned by the Windows 95.

Windows NT 4.0
Microsoft released Windows NT 4.0, as the successor of Windows NT 3.x, which threaten the success of domination Novell Netware and UNIX in the corporate market. Windows NT 4.0 is initially being developed as part of an effort to introduce to the Windows NT workstation market. NT 4.0 has the same interface with Windows 95, but using the same kernel with Windows NT, so more stable. Indeed, there is an additional patch available for Windows NT 3:51 to make the NT 3:51 to like NT 4.0, but is not very stable and have many bugs. User interface is initially developed at the top of Windows NT, but because Windows 95 released before NT 4.0, then people tend to think "Windows NT 4.0 is a facsimile of the Windows 95."
Windows NT 4.0 comes in four versions:
• Windows NT 4.0 Workstation
• Windows NT 4.0 Server
• Windows NT 4.0 Server, Enterprise Edition (which includes support for clustering and SMP to 8-way)
• Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Server

Windows 98
On June 25, 1998, Microsoft released a new Windows operating system, known as Windows 98. Windows 98 is considered a minor revision to the Windows 95, but the general view is far more stable and reliable than the predecessor, Windows 95. Windows 98 includes many new drivers and hardware support FAT32 file system that better allow the partition to have a capacity larger than 2 gigabytes, a limit that is found in the Windows 95. USB support in Windows 98 also far better than the predecessor.
Windows 98 invited controversy when Microsoft browsers include Microsoft Internet Explorer into the operating system and can not be revoked, making the Windows Explorer and the Windows GUI is able to display the directory as though the web page. This open new cases, referred to as the United States versus Microsoft, the Microsoft asks why bother to keep dominasinya in personal computer operating systems to compete with competitors such as Netscape and IBM in a way that is not fair.
In 1999, Microsoft released Windows 98 Second Edition, a release that offers many improvements compared to previous versions. Internet Connection Sharing, which is a form of Network Address Translation, which allows several machines in a local network that can use one Internet connection point with any introduced in this version. Many minor problems in Windows that have been corrected long, which makes the Windows 98, according to many people as a version of Windows 9x the most stable among all the other versions of Windows 9x.

Windows 2000
Microsoft released Windows 2000 on 17 February 2000, a version of the previous known as Windows NT 5.0 or NT 5.0. " Windows 2000 version is aimed at two market, namely the market of workstations and server market share.
Among the features that Windows 2000 is the most significant Active Directory, a replacement model of the network model of the network NT domain, using technology that is the industry standard, such as Domain Name System (DNS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) and Kerberos to a machine between the connect to other machines. Windows Terminal Services also that, in Windows NT 4.0 only in one product only, on Windows 2000 is in all versions of the server. New features adopted from Windows 98 also put in it, such as the Device Manager that have been upgraded (by using the Microsoft Management Console), Windows Media Player, and DirectX 6.1 (which allows the operating system kernel based Windows NT to run the game). Windows 2000 also is a version of Windows NT-based kernel that does not require that the final users to perform activation proteins.
Although Windows 2000 can update the computer before running the Windows 98, Windows 2000 is not considered as a suitable product for home users. The reason for many, including a lack of device drivers for many users, such as scanner device (scanner) and printer (the printer), released at the time. The situation was eventually turn on Windows XP released by Microsoft.
Windows 2000 is available in six editions, namely:
• Windows 2000 Professional
• Windows 2000 Server
• Windows 2000 Advanced Server
• Windows 2000 Datacenter Server
• Windows 2000 Advanced Server Limited Edition
• Windows 2000 Datacenter Server Limited Edition

Windows Me
In September 2000, Microsoft introduced the Windows Millennium Edition (also known as Windows Me or Windows ME). This version of the Windows 98 update with support for multimedia and the Internet better. This version also features the "System Restore," which allows its users to restore the situation to a point system that is known well only when the operating system failed. System Restore feature to be still maintained in Windows XP. This version also introduced a version of Windows Movie Maker first.
Windows Me is made in a short time, approximately one year, which is intended only to fill the void between the release of Windows 98 and Windows XP operating system as a classroom for the home. Features found in Windows Me (like Internet Explorer 5.5, Windows Media Player 7.0, and Microsoft DirectX 7.1) even can be obtained for free from the Windows Update site, except for System Restore. The result, Windows Me not regarded as an operating system that is unique among his brothers from the family of Windows 9x, Windows 95 and Windows 98. Windows Me also criticized because of the emergence of stability problems, and also the support of the MS-DOS running in real mode. People even mention Windows Me as Windows Mistake Edition.
Windows Me operating system is the last monolithic kernel is made based on the Windows 9x and MS-DOS. This version also become the latest version of the Windows operating system that does not have the Windows Product Activation (WPA).

Windows XP
In 2001, Microsoft introduced the Windows XP (which has the code name "Whistler" during development. Finally, after releasing some Windows-based version of Windows 9x and NT, Microsoft succeeded in bringing together both the range of products. Windows XP using the Windows NT 5.1 kernel, making Windows NT kernel with famous kestabilannya entering the home consumer market, to replace the Windows 9x product based 16/32-bit that ripen.
Windows XP is a version of the Windows operating system that most long (at least until now), because it ranges from 2001 until 2007, when Windows Vista released to consumers. Middlebury Windows XP operating system by the end of Windows Vista on 30 January 2007.
Windows XP is available in several versions:
• Windows XP Home Edition, which is intended to market the home desktop and laptop.
• Windows XP Home Edition N, Home Edition, as usual, but do not have Windows Media Player, because the EU regulations do not memperbolehkannya.
• Windows XP Professional, intended for power users and business people.
• Windows XP Professional N, the same as Professional Edition, but do not have Windows Media Player, because the EU does not rule allows.
• Windows XP Media Center Edition (MCE), released in November 2002, is a Windows XP Home Edition, which is intended to dektop and laptops with the emphasis on home entertainment.
o Windows XP Media Center Edition 2003
o Windows XP Media Center Edition 2004
o Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005, released on 12 October 2004.
• Windows XP Tablet PC Edition, intended for Tablet PC (PC with touch screen)
o Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005
• Windows XP Embedded, the system is intended to benam (embedded systems)
• Windows XP Starter Edition, which is intended for users of computers in some developing countries.
• Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, released on 25 April 2005 for the home systems and workstations that use 64-bit processor based instruction set x86-64 (AMD64 or Intel EM64T).
• Windows XP 64-Bit Edition, a version of Windows XP that is intended for Intel's Itanium processor line, which maintains compatibility with 32-bit applications using the emulator software. This version is the same with Windows XP Professional, in terms of features. This product was discontinued in September 2005 when the vendor last Itanium processor-based workstation to stop products as "workstations", as they tend to focus the Itanium server computer as a base.
o Windows XP 64-Bit Edition, 2003, are made based on the code base of Windows NT 5.2 (same as Windows Server 2003).
Windows Server 2003
On 24 April 2003, Microsoft launched Windows Server 2003, an update to the operating system Windows 2000 Server, which offers many security features of the new guide "Manage Your Server wizard" that simplifies the role of an engine run, and also increase performance . Windows Server 2003 kernel using Windows NT version 5.2.
In the Windows Server 2003, some services are not needed in the server environment is disabled by default, especially the "Windows Audio" and "Themes" for the reasons stability; To be able to use voice and display the same with Windows XP, users must activate it manually , Through SNAP-in Microsoft Management Console Services.msc In addition, hardware acceleration for graphics card also turned off; again, the user must activate it manually, of course, if the device driver used "can be trusted."
In December 2005, Microsoft released Windows Server 2003 r2, which is a Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 plus some additional packages. Among all the features are new features for branch offices, and the integration of a broad identity.
Windows Server 2003 is available in five editions of the fruit:
• Windows Server 2003, Web Edition
• Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition
• Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition (32-bit and 64-bit)
• Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition
• Windows Server 2003, Small Business Server

Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs as thin client platforms
In July 2006, Microsoft released a version of Windows XP Service Pack 2, intended to thin-client market, which is called as Windows Fundamentals for Legacy pcs (WinFLP). WinFLP only available to customers of Microsoft's Software Assurance. WinFLP goal is generally to provide upgrade options to their customers who still use Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me, and Windows NT Workstation. Most users run applications on a remote machine by using Terminal Services or Citrix.

Windows Vista
After reaching the big success with Windows XP, Microsoft does not directly stop it developing Windows. The latest version of Windows, called Windows Vista, released on 30 November 2006 [1] for the business while for the home user released on 30 January 2007. Windows Vista is declared to have more security firm compared with previous versions, by introducing a limited user mode, known as the User Account Control (UAC), to replace the philosophy of "administrator-by-default" is applied in Windows XP . Windows Vista also introduces features a graph that is far more "decoy", which is called Windows Aero GUI, the new applications (such as Windows Calendar, Windows DVD Maker and several new games including Chess Titans, mahjong, and Purble Place). In addition, Windows Vista also offers a version of Microsoft Internet Explorer that is more secure, and the Windows Media Player version of the new (version 11).
Windows Vista uses the version 6.0, so that indeed there are significant differences version when compared with Windows XP that use the version 5.1 or Windows Server 2003 (5.2). Because, indeed Windows Vista have many fundamental differences, particularly on the basic architecture of the operating system.
Windows Vista is sold in several editions:
• Windows Vista Starter
• Windows Vista Home Basic
• Windows Vista Home Premium
• Windows Vista Business
• Windows Vista Enterprise
• Windows Vista Ultimate

Windows Home Server
Windows Home Server (code name has a previous Q compendium of quattro) is a server product derived from the Windows Server 2003, designed specifically for use by consumers from home users. This operating system introduced on 7 January 2007 by Bill Gates. Windows Home Server can be configured and monitored using a console program that can be installed on a PC client. This feature of Windows Media Sharing, the backup drive against local and remote drives, and duplicate files.

Windows Server 2008
Windows Server 2008, is a new version of Windows Server, which is scheduled for released on 27 February 2008. At the time of development, Windows Server has a code name "Windows Server Codenamed see." Windows Server 2008 is built on top of some of the benefits of technology and security that was initially introduced with Windows Vista, and is intended to be significantly more modular, rather predecessor, Windows Server 2003.

Windows 7
After the next release of Windows Vista known as Windows 7, which previously known as Blackcomb and Vienna.

History of operating systems, Microsoft

Movement version of MS-DOS
• Windows 95 (MS-DOS 7.0)
• Windows 95 OEM Service Release 2.x, Windows 98 (MS-DOS 7.1)
• Windows Millennium Edition (MS-DOS 8.0)

Movement of the home version of Windows class
• Windows 1.0
• Windows 2.0
• Windows 2.1 (aka Windows/286 and Windows/386)
• Windows 3.0, Windows 3.1, Windows 3.1 for Workgroups, Windows 3:11, 3:11 Windows for Workgroups (WfW)
• Windows 95 (Windows 4.0)
• Windows 98 (Windows 4.1)
• Windows Millennium Edition (Windows 4.9)
Movement version of the Microsoft / IBM OS / 2
• OS / 2 1.0
• OS / 2 1.1
• OS / 2 1.2
• OS / 2 1.3

Movement-based version of Microsoft Windows NT
• Windows NT 3.1, 3.5
• Windows NT 4.0
• Windows 2000 (Windows NT 5.0)
• Windows XP (Windows NT 5.1)
• Windows Server 2003, Windows XP 64-Bit Edition 2003 (Windows NT 5.2)
• Windows XP Professional x64 Edition (Windows NT 5.2)
• Windows Fundamentals for Legacy pcs (Windows NT 5.1)
• Windows Vista (Windows NT 6.0)

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