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Selasa, 23 Desember 2008

Intel Core i7

Intel Core i7 is a family of three Intel desktop x86-64 processors, the first processors released using the Intel Nehalem microarchitecture and the successor to the Intel Core 2 family. All three models are quad-core processors. The Core i7 identifier applies to the initial family of processors[5][6] codenamed Bloomfield. Intel representatives state that the moniker Core i7 does not have any deeper meaning. The name continues the use of the successful Core brand. Core i7, first assembled in Costa Rica, was officially launched on November 17, 2008 and is manufactured in Arizona, New Mexico and Oregon though the Oregon plant is moving to the next generation 32nm process.


The Nehalem architecture has many new features, some of which are present in the Core i7. The ones that represent significant changes from the Core 2 include:

* The new LGA 1366 socket is incompatible with earlier processors.
* On-die memory controller: the memory is directly connected to the processor.
o Three channel memory: each channel can support one or two DDR3 DIMMs. Motherboards for Core i7 have four (3+1) or six DIMM slots instead of two or four, and DIMMs should be installed in sets of three, not two.
o Support for DDR3 only.
o No ECC support.
* The front side bus is replaced by QuickPath interface. Motherboards must use a chipset that supports QuickPath.
* Single-die device: all four cores, the memory controller, and all cache are on a single die.
* "Turbo Boost" technology allows all active cores to intelligently clock themselves up in steps of 133 MHz over the design clock rate as long as the CPU's predetermined thermal and electrical requirements are still met.[11]
* Re-implemented Hyper-threading. Each of the four cores can process up to two threads simultaneously, so the processor appears to the OS as eight CPUs. This feature was present in the older NetBurst architecture but was dropped in Core.
* On-die, shared, inclusive 8MB L3 cache.
* Only one QuickPath interface: not intended for multi-processor motherboards.
* 45nm process technology.
* 731M transistors.
* Sophisticated power management can place an unused core in a zero-power mode.
* Support for SSE4.2 & SSE4.1 instruction sets.

[edit] Processor cores

* The clock rates listed here are as specified by Intel for normal mode. "Turbo boost" can increase the rate on active cores in steps of 133 MHz up to a predetermined limit for short periods when required.
* The 965 XE has separate unlocked multipliers for memory and cores.
o Core clock above those in the table are not guaranteed by Intel.[2] Rates above 5GHz have been reported.
o Memory rates above those in the table are not guaranteed by Intel.[2] Rates above DDR3-2000 have been reported.
* The processor has a Thermal Design Power of 130W and will slow itself down if this power is exceeded. This feature can be disabled from an option in most of the new motherboards' BIOS.[12]
* Prices are per unit in lots of 1,000 in USD

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